Target Species: Green Adder’s Mouth (Malaxis unifolia)
The Green Adder’s Mouth is a peculiar orchid of the Eastern United States that reaches its southwestern limit in the Pineywoods of East Texas. I saw and photographed this species a few years ago, however it was when they were first emerging from the leaf litter and were not yet in bloom. I have since wanted to photograph them in full bloom.
Last year a friend told me about a population less than an hour from my house. This year I visited the site in hopes of catching them at peak bloom. The Green Adder’s Mouth tends to be found on gentle moist slopes adjacent to streams, seeps, and wetland margins. This particular population is adjacent to a wetland swale deep in a pine-hardwood upland. The site delivered as promised, and we observed hundreds of individuals in bloom scattered along the gentle slope grading into the wet depression. We even found a few scattered among the adjacent uplands.
The specific epithet unifolia is in reference to the single leaf that emerges from the leaf litter in later March/Early April. The leaf emerges with with a developing cluster of flower buds. As the plant grows the buds begin to spread out and unfurl, revealing the tiny, intricate blooms that lend the plant it’s common name. Adder’s Mouth is in reference to the pronged lip (lower petal), which is said to appear the fangs of an adder. The detail of individuals blooms is best appreciated from above, as in the shots that follow.
Though the plants may eventually reach heights of a foot or more, it’s tiny cryptic flowers and generic leaf make it a real challenge to spot. As Joe Liggio speculates in his book The Wild Orchids of Texas, it may indeed be more common than we currently suspect.
There was little blooming near the orchids, with the exception of the beautiful White Milkweed (Asclepias variegata). This is one of the earliest milkweeds to bloom in East Texas. The red band below the flowers’ hoods lends it the alternative common name “Redring Milkweed”
Milkweed blooms are highly popular with pollinators. Just about every plant had a myriad of flies, bees, and beetles.
It felt good to finally get the photos I have long wanted of the Green Adder’s Mouth, but just as rewarding was exploring an unfamiliar area of the Pineywoods. I can only hope that my pursuit of my 2017 biodiversity goals will continue to take me to new, exciting (at least to me!) places.